Just a rough vocabulary to help clear up any confusion you growers may have with terms we use, or just a nice read if you want to have more knowledge! Enjoy.
Sativa -- Sativa is a hard plant to grow indoors due to high lighting requirements, tall stature, and late flowering traits. Sativas come from equatorial regions, thus the neccesity for high ammounts of lighting and a warmer tropic-subtropic climate. You can identify a Sativa by its long, slender, finger-like leaves. A Sativa will typically produce a euphoric, energetic, cerebral high. Despite the Sativa's climatic limitations, they are truly a reward to obtain, grow, and smoke. A pure Sativa will take 2 to 4 months to finish flowering.
18/6: Time normally associated with the vegetative stage of growth i.e. 18 hours of light to 6 of darkness.
12/12: Timing used to initiate the flowering stage of the plant i.e. 12 hours light to 12 hours darkness.
Abiotic stress: Non-living environmental factors such as frost, drought, excessive heat, etc. that can have harmfvl effects on plants.
Abscisic acid mediates stress tolerance responses in higher plants, is a key signal compound that regulates stomatal aperture and, in concert with other plant signaling compounds, is implicated in mediating responses to pathogens and wounding.
In seeds, ABA promotes seed development, embryo maturation, synthesis of storage products (proteins and lipids), desiccation tolerance, is involved in maintenance of dormancy (inhibition of germination), and apoptosis. As well, ABA affects plant architecture, including root growth and morphology, and root-to-shoot ratios
Aeroponics -- is the growing of plants in a container in which the roots are suspended in a nutrient mist rather than in a solution. The most popular container for aeroponics is an enclosed A-frame constructed of styrofoam boards. The plants are placed in holes along the sloped sides of the frame. The nutrient mist is delivered to the roots by a vaporizer or by special attachments available with drip irrigation kits. The mist clings to the roots. Any excess runs down the inside of the frame, is collected at the bottom, and is recycled back to the nutrient reservoir.
alternating leaf- as the plant grows, in the begining, every leaf(that is not damaged) will have another leaf growing from exactly 180 degrees onaround the stem. they grow in pairs. when the plants mature, the leaves will grow one at a time. that is a leaf will pop out on one side, then, up the stem/ btanch, another will grow. ie alternating.
Auxins -- are plant hormones governing many biological processes in higher plants such as cell enlargement and division, differentiation of vascular tissue, apical dominance, root initiation and signaling.
Ballast: Provides current and power to the light. Here it mostly refers to the above for H.I.D. (high intensity discharge) lighting.
Blood Meal --This organic fertilizer is very high in nitrogen and is very soluble in water (unlike most other dry organic fertilizers). It also contains plant growth regulators. All this together means that its effect is strong and quick, but its power will only last a short while, especially in wet weather. When applying blood meal, take care, as it will easily burn a plant's leaves.
Buds - The reason this website exists! -The part of the flowering female plant that contains high concentrations of THC and other psychoactive ingredients.
Bud Leaves - the small leaves that grow in the buds of the plant, usually covered in trichomes when harvested.
Calyxes - "the usually green outer whorl of a flower consisting of sepals" - Merriam-Webster I was looking for a diagram to illustrate, but I haven't come across a real good one yet
Canopy - The top branches of a plant, usually shading the lower branches, except when branch training methods are used. (See LST, SCROG, and SOG)
CBD/CBN -- byproducts of the main physcoactive ingredient in pot, thc. these byproducts are created when the thc degrades, due to over exposure to heat/oxygen(some thc will naturally do this while the flowers rippen). it is beleived that they are resposible for the stoney part of the high, and known to have a direct effect on the physcoactive effect thc has on the "user". it is only needed in minimal amounts, in comparison to thc.
CFM - Cubic Feet per Minute. This describes the volume of air that is displaced in 1 minute (see ventilation).
Chlorophyll -- the green pigment in leaves. Chlorophyll pigment is produced in the chloroplasts of leaf, stem and flower cells. Chlorophyll pigment dominates all other pigments present including the xanthophylls and carotenes. Chlorophyll captures the sun's energy which is used to manufacture sugar from carbon dioxide and water. Chlorophylls are constantly being "used up" and thus are continually manufacture by the plant, provided the environmental conditions are appropriate.
Cloning -- the process of replicating female plants. Cloning Guide, with pics
Colas - "The female flowers develop tightly together to form dense clusters (racemes) or buds, cones, or colas"- Mel Frank marijuana Grower's Guide This is the dank shiznit you are going to be smokin' friend.
Composting - The process by which organic materials mixed together in specific conditions create a nutrient-rich medium.
Curing ? Process of placing the dried harvest in tightly sealed, sterile, jar, which should be stored in a dry, dark, cool place. Then according to preference open the jar for a certain amount of time everyday to release co2 and moisture and this slowly dries the crop, thus improving taste and over all quality.
Cotyledons - small round leaves that are the first to appear on a small seedling, they are not considered true leaves? and often fall off of the plant early in the growth stage.
Cuttings -- Sometimes the easiest (and fastest) way to grow a new plant is not from seed, but asexually from cuttings. Cuttings are taken from roots, stems, or leaves and encouraged to regenerate by providing ideal growing conditions and (oftentimes) applying rooting hormones. Unlike plants started from seed, a plant grown from a cutting will have exactly the same characteristics of the parent plant See Also - Cloning
Decarboxylation -This occurs after buds are harvested and during the curing process. The THC loses a CO2 molecule, which then makes the THC psychoactive. This process is why drying and curing buds after harvest is crucial to the high that the bud produces.
Feminized Seeds - seeds which have a higer likelyhood of sprouting female
fish emulsion -- This is a liquid organic fertilizer with a NPK ratio of about 4-1-1 to 7-2-2. It is water soluble and thus immediately available to plants. It is valued for its high nitrogen content.
FIM - Acronym for F*** I Missed!? A variant of the topping technique, where only a portion of the growth tip is removed, causing an increase in resulting cola sites. (See topping).
Flo, Flouro, Floro's -- Fluorescents come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. There are compacts, twist bulbs and circle bulbs. They all work the same way. They have a starter and ballast which help provide a steady and regulated amount of electricity to the light.
FLIR - Acronym for Forward-Looking Infrared, it is a thermal imaging process whereby differences in heat emission are measured and reflected on a videotape. Heat concentration is indicated on a videotape on a spectrum of light to dark, with bright white showing intense heat. Increasingly, law enforcement personnel are using FLIR thermal imaging to detect indoor marijuana growing operations. However, the Supreme Court in the U.S. has recently banned the use of FLIR to find these operations.
Flush - the act of cleansing a plants roots of nutrients and contaminants by giving the plant large amounts of water (usually equal to 3 times the volume of soil the plant is in).
Foliar Feeding - The act of giving water and/or nutrients to the plant through the leaves instead of through the roots.
Force Flowering - Giving a female plant a photoperiod of 12/12 to force the plant into producing buds.
Garlic: (Apologies to any vamps out there) Planted in the same pot/area as your plants will act as a natural systemic insecticide to greenfly and blackfly the plants absorb it from the growing garlic it DOES NOT affect the plants scent or taste, can also be used for same reason with other plants.
Germinate -- To begin to sprout or grow
Gibberellic Acid --A hormone used to promote plant growth, especially that of seedlings, and obtained from the fungus Gibberella fujikoroi (GA) is used to reduce flowering and fruiting which maximizes growth and minimizes pollen transmitted. GA is also used in mature plants to increase the fruiting capacity by stimulating the development of lateral shoots and spurs.
Harvesting -- The act or process of gathering a crop Harvest & Drying 101
Herbs -- Aromatic plants used for seasoning, medicinal purposes, or garnishes. Aromatic herbs are the ones that have fragrant or smelly leaves or flowers.
HID -- High Intensity Discharge (lighting)
HPS -- The best light available today for growing marijuana. High Pressure Sodium lights are very bright and very efficient. This light has a red/orange spectrum that is ideal for the flowering phase. With enough of these kind of lights you too can grow those centerfold buds. HPS comes in a wide variety of wattages from 70 watts up to 1000 watts.
Hormone --A biochemical product of a specific cell or tissue that causes a change or activity in a cell or tissue located elsewhere in an organism.
Hydroponics -- the growing of plants without soil, instead using a medium like clay pebbles, rockwool-floc or perlite and vermiculite mixture.
Humus -- a complicated material formed during the breakdown of organic matter. One of its components, humic acid, provides many binding sites for plant nutrients, such as calcium, iron, potassium, sulfur and phosphorus. These nutrients are stored in the humic acid molecule in a form readily available to plants, and are released when the plants require them.
Hybrid -- Often refers to a plant or variety that has been developed by interbreeding two or more varieties, species, or genera
IBL - Imbred line, a homogeneous strain that shows uniform growth characteristics from seed
Indica -- Indica is a great plant to grow indoors as well as outdoors due to its low lighting requirements and tight internode spacing, also offering resistance to fungus and pests, early maturation tendencies, and dense flower production. Indica's come from colder climates exhibiting the traits described above by acclimating to the environment from whence they came. Their stout stature and extremely wide leaflets make them easy to identify. An Indica generally produces a hard hitting, tiresome, sedative stone, and will take around 45 to 60 days to finish flowering.
Leggy --If seedlings and plants do not get enough sunlight, they grow tall and thin stalks as they seek sunlight. These "leggy" plants have a difficult time supporting the weight of the plant and is easily damaged.
Light-burn - When the heat from a light burns the plant.
Lumens -- one lumen is equal to the amount of light emitted by one candle that falls on one square foot of surface one foot away. Lamp Lumen Data
LST - Acronym for Low-Stress Training, the technique of manipulating the branches in order to reduce plant height, expose certain branches to light, and/or distribute hormones to lower branches of the plant to encourage larger buds.
Macronutrients --For a plant, there are nine major elements essential for healthy growth; these are called macronutrients. They are: carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (which are all three derived from air and water); and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sulfur, and magnesium (from the soil).
Micronutrients --There are about eight nutrients essential to plant growth and health that are only present in very small quantities. These are manganese, boron, copper, iron, chlorine, cobalt, molybdenum, and zinc.
Medium -- A soil or soil-less mix used to start or re-plant houseplants, flowers, vegetables, and other plants
Mottling of Leaves -- Discoloration or spotting of leaves.
MV -- Mercury Vapor is the type of lights that were used for streetlights many years ago. Not very good for growing because it doesn't provide enough of the right kind of light spectrum. While they do provide a littleof the blue spectrum, MV also produces too much heat to get very close to a plant, and are very inefficient to operate.
MH -- The Metal Halide is a very good source of the white/blue spectrum of light that is ideal for vegetative growth. Many growers use MH during the vegetative phase. MH is bright and cost efficient to operate, but not as efficient as HPS lights. Most commonly used sizes are 400 watt and 1000 watt. Works best when used in combination with HPS lights.
Necrosis - Death of parts of the plant, usually refers specifically to the leaves.
Node -- The point on a stem where a leaf is attached or has been attached; a joint
NPK -- The elemental symbol for nitrogen is N; for phosphorus it's P; for potassium it's K. All three of these elements are essential for plant growth and are considered macronutrients. N, P, and K are the three principal ingredients in most fertilizers. The NPK ratio is shown by three numbers, such as 2-1-1, that reflect the percentage of each.
Nute-burn - the result of feeding a plant an excess of fertilizer.
Organic Nutrients - Natural, non-synthetic nutrients.
Peat moss --The partially decomposed remains of mosses harvested commercially from the wild. Though difficult to wet initially, peat moss can absorb up to 25 times its own weight in water and is therefor valued as a an organic soil amendment. Peat moss is acidic --with a pH of about 3 or 4.0-- and should only be used around acid-loving plants or to help lower the pH of alkaline soils.
Perlite -- a unique volcanic mineral which expands from four to twenty times its original volume when it is quickly heated to a temperature of approximately 1600-1700 degrees F. This expansion is due to the presence of two to six percent combined water in the crude perlite rock which causes the perlite to pop in a manner similar to that of popcorn.
When expanded, each granular, snow-white particle of perlite is sterile with a neutral pH and contains many tiny, closed cells or bubbles. The surface of each particle is covered with tiny cavities which provide an extremely large surface area. These surfaces hold moisture and nutrients and make them available to plant roots. In addition, because of the physical shape of each particle, air passages are formed which provide optimum aeration and drainage. Because perlite is sterile, it is free of disease, seeds, and insects.
Perlite has been used for many years throughout the world for soil conditioning and as a component of growing mixes with materials such as peat moss or bark. Extensive studies have shown that the unique capillary action of perlite makes it a superior growing media for hydroponic cultures.
Among the many uses of perlite today are propagation and seed cultivation, plug production and transplants, interiorscape and planter growing, composting,
PH -- the measure of soil's acidity or alkalinity, measured on a scale of 1 to 14. Water is considered neutral at PH 7. PH levels below 7 are classified as acidic, or "sour". Levels above 7 are basic, alkaline or "sweet". Most plants prefer a slightly acidic soil pH of 6.0 to 6.5.
Phenotype - generally the characteristics the plant shows, mostly sativa or mostly indica traits, although theres quite alot more that i cant think of off the top of my head (stuff like tall/short, wide/skinny leaves, high/low THC content percentage (or something like that))
Phloem: Nutrient conducting tissue.
Photoperiod - AKA lighting schedule, it is the number of hours of light and darkness the plant is exposed to. Usually expressed as a fraction. Ex: 18/6 = 18 hours of light, and 6 hours of darkness
Photosynthesis: Biochemical process in which light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll, and is used to fuel the building of sugar molecules.
Pistil - a hair-like protrusion from the nodes/buds of a female plant, also a precursor to the buds themselves. Pistils turn from white to brown as the buds mature.
Potash -- Broadly, potash describes any material containing potassium. More specifically, though, potash is potassium carbonate derived from wood ashes. The term potash comes from the process of extracting lye from wood ashes in iron pots
PPM - Acronym for Parts Per Million, this term is used most in hydroponics to measure the amount of nutrients given to a plant.
Rock Wool ? Mineral or rock wool has been used extensively in Europe and is recently finding applications in the U.S. greenhouse market. Like perlite and vermiculite, it originates from a natural mineral (alumino silicates with some calcium and magnesium) that is heated to 2,700?F to form fibers that are used to make blocks or cubes as a finished product. Blocks or slabs of rock wool are used extensively by hydroponic growers of greenhouse vegetables. Rock wool typically has an alkaline pH, is sterile and chemically inert.
Regenerate - AKA re-vegging, refers to the act of putting a plant back into the growth cycle after harvesting the flowering buds off of the plant, in order to bud the plant again or to take clones off of the plant.
Root Bound --A condition where a plant or seedling's roots have grown compacted and entwined in the pot and has no room to grow. This condition results in stunting the plants growth and potential. The solution is a larger pot or transplanting outdoors.
Ruderalis -- Ruderalis is not a very good choice for flower production, indoors or out. Despite maintaining a short stature, growing only one to five feet tall, and maturing rather quickly, Ruderalis just doesn't produce the yield or quality one looks for in their flowers. A slight light cycle reduction can trigger a sprout with as little as 2 to 3 leaf sets to flower. Ruderalis spontaneously initiates flowering a few weeks after sprouting, and will not produce decent flowers unless the photoperiod provides around 18 to 19 hours of light. Even then, the yield and quality are less than desirable, incomparable to that of the Sativa or Indica sub-species.
ScrOG/ SOG -- "Screen Of Green" method. The purpose of ScrOG is to maximize your usage of the available space and lighting by training the new growth of a plant into a screen or mesh. What is ScrOG?
Seed Casing The integuments of the ovule, which are the ovule's old coverings, harden and become the seed's protective coat
Sensimilla - Spanish for 'without seed', AKA sensi, having a female plant bud without letting a male plant pollenate it, thereby preventing seeds from forming in the buds. This increases THC potency and smokable bud weight.
Sepal -- Sepals are components of the calyx. Located at the base of the flower, these modified leaves usually function as protection for the petals while in bud stage. Occasionally, sepals will be colored, but they are usually green
Sex - verb. The act of determining the gender of a plant by giving it a photoperiod of 12/12.
Stamen --This is the male reproductive organ of a plant, located in the androecium of the flower. It has two components: the filament and the anther..
Stigma: The sticky tip of a pistil.
Strain - refers to the specific genetics of the plant. Example: White Widow, Northern Lights.
Stomata: Opening in the epidermis of a leaf which permit gas exchange with the air.
Stress - Any unhealthy stimuli the plant receives. Examples: Light-burn, overwatering, nute-burn. Stress can cause slow growth, mutations, or death.
Sun Leaves - AKA fan leaves, these are the large leaves that grow off of branches, and while not rich in THC, they play an important role in photosynthesis.
Synthetic Nutrients - AKA Chemical nutrients, concentrated and industrial-made nutrients. They have a longer shelf-life than organic nutes, but are known to nute-burn a plant more quickly.
THC -- a. Tetrahydrocannabinol A compound, C-21 H-30 O-2, obtained from cannabis or made synthetically, that is the primary intoxicant in marijuana and hashish.
b. The main physcoactive ingredient in pot. this is what gets you "high!". it is often(not totally accurately) measured by the trichomes(fairy dust) visible on pot.
Topping Method used to increase yield and maximize space, by trimming off the top bud. Traditionally, topping your plant causes two shoots to grow back in place of the one pruned off, thus increasing the number of top/main buds
Transplanting Shock -- When transplanting seedlings from one place to another, the roots are often disturbed and occasionally the change in climate can cause the plant to slow down or appear to stop growing. This is transplant shock. It is really redirecting it's energy to re-grow lost roots and to get accustomed to a change in temperature that it hadn't experienced before.
Trichomes - AKA crystals or sugar, they are tiny, mushroom-shaped capitulate glands full of THC that form on the flowering buds and bud leaves of cannabis.
Vascular: Refers to the xylem and phloem tissues, which conduct water and nutrients through the plant body.
Vermiculite -- is sterile and light in weight (5 to 8 lbs/ft3). The pH of vermiculite will vary depending on where it is mined. Most U.S. sources are neutral to slightly alkaline, whereas vermiculite from Africa can be quite alkaline (pH = 9). Vermiculite is used extensively in the greenhouse industry as a component of mixes or in propagation. It is usually sold in four size grades: #1 is the coarsest and #4 the smallest. The finer grades are used extensively for seed germination or to topdress seed flats. Expanded vermiculite should not be pressed or compacted, especially when wet, as this will destroy the desirable physical properties.
Ventilation - Circulating air in order to provide the plant with fresh air and/or to reduce the temperature in the grow area. Air movement also encourages strong stems.
Watering Schedule - term referring to how often and how much water a plant is given, usually measured in days and gallons. Ex: 1 gallon every 4 days.
Watts -- A measure of the amount of electricity flowing through a wire. Watt hours measure the amount of watts used in one hour. A kilowatt/hour (KWH) is 1000 watt/hours.
Worm Casting -- (Vermiconversion) or using earthworms to convert waste into soil additives, is a biologically active mound containing thousands of bacteria, enzymes, and remnants of plant materials and animal manures that were not digested by the earthworm. The composting process continues after a worm casting has been deposited. In fact, the bacterial population of a cast is much greater than the bacterial population of either ingested soil, or the earthworm's gut. An important component of this dark mass is humus.